URL links vs Callback links capabilities

I'm playing with Windows v 2.8.8 and Android trying to see if I can migrate over from Evernote which I've been using for years. One thing I'm struggling to understand is what capabilities exist for Callback vs URL links.
A feature I've used extensively in Evernote is that the Internal Link in Evernote is actually a URL of the form:
www evernote com / shard/s21/nl/1326547/kjhakswd-3asd-4232-b2sd-safd54465sda
I've turned dozens of these links into QR code labels which I can then attach to physical objects. And since the link is not a public link, it only works on a device that's logged into my Evernote account. It gives you the ability to store unlimited information securely (as secure as your Evernote login) in plain view. So for example, my door lock has a complex sequence of codes to reprogram it and I put a QR code that links to the Evernote note where I stored the instructions.
I know my existing QR code links will only ever link to my Evernote notes but I'm wondering whether I can use callback links in the same way. Do they currently only work on the desktop but may eventually work on Android? And if I sync via Joplin server can they take the form of an internet URL?