I don't think you will be able to do much to improve the performance. I would suggest to either reduce your number of notes in general or create a separate profile with a small subset of notes that you really need to access on the mobile device and only sync that. You may also want to completely disable or greatly reduce note history.
Basically, the idea is to reduce the number of MD files that Joplin needs to sync to a minimum. Android's current filesystem access implementation is very slow when having to go through a large number of files. The fewer the files, the better.
I can install an earlier version of Joplin to import my notes quickly, which would suggest there's nothing slow about androids filesystem. Also, there's no way an operating system of the magnitude of android would be able to function with a filesystem that slow. Something else is up
How early of a version of Joplin? The older versions which targeted older SDKs were allowed to access the filesystem more directly (= faster). The current versions are forced to use FUSE which is more secure but also very slow (e.g. see https://www.reddit.com/r/androiddev/comments/kpn68k/android_11_very_slow_file_access_performance). This is a known issue if you look up "android fuse" in any search engine. The only way to work around this would be through root, but Joplin doesn't have any special root mode which would allow for direct filesystem access.
When it comes to most other applications, users usually don't need to access hundreds or thousands of files at the same time, hence the problem is non-existent for them. However, with Joplin specifically, the application creases lots of tiny MD files for each note, and all together they can easily add up to a few thousands, and accessing such numbers of files on modern Android is very slow.